The Main Components of a CNC Machine

CNC machines use computer programming to provide highly accurate and efficient cuts, achieving very tight tolerances for woods, plastics, and more. While state-of-the-art programming plays a major role in this process, the machine’s components also make a key difference. Here’s a closer look at some of a CNC machine’s main components.


The spindle is comprised of a rotating section and a shaft where a tool holder attaches different tools to the machine. The spindle is rotated by a motor, and can be positioned vertically or horizontally, depending on the machine. 


The table is used to mount fixtures, clamp the material block, or vice a piece in place. T-slots help make this process easier. Some machines even use magnets for easier clamping and to maintain Z-axis height.


CNC machines have programmable XYZ axes to achieve precise cuts. Many also include an extra rotational axis for greater programming flexibility.

Control Panel

The control panel houses the electronics that control the CNC machine’s cutting actions. A monitor and programming buttons allow for both manual function and programming of a sequence that will be carried out automatically.

These are just some of the components that help CNC machines deliver high-quality results for a wide range of products. At Gerber Wood, our CNC router machines work with wood and plastic products with thicknesses up to seven inches, with a 3-axis setup. Custom tooling and programming are available for small and large jobs. Contact us to learn more.

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